阿拉伯字母各本之異

Wusizhe
(格式)
Wusizhe
(渡至阿拉伯字
 
#REDIRECT [[阿拉伯字]]
[[File:Arabic alphabet world distribution.png|thumb|300px|今世回字流行圖:
{{Legend|#00884B|唯阿拉伯字為國書者}}
{{Legend|#83C30F|阿拉伯字為國書一者}}]]
 
'''阿拉伯字(أَبْجَدِيَّة عَرَبِيَّة‎)''',亦謂'''天方字'''、'''回字'''者,初為'''[[阿拉伯語]]'''之所書也,今則奉[[回教]]處多以之為文,若[[維吾爾文]]、[[波斯文]]、[[烏爾杜文]]然。攷其源流,則本[[納巴泰字]]而造。自右而左橫書。初無[[元音]],然有以[[零聲母]]'''艾里夫(ا、ى)'''倂[[半元音]]'''瓦烏(و)'''示者。有連書法,蓋一詞之間,字母聯匯貫通,其人美之。後世遂多[[書法]]、[[書體]]焉。
 
== 字母表 ==
 
阿拉伯語回字凡二十有八,皆[[輔音]]。
 
{|class="wikitable nounderlines" style="font-family:Arial,Heltivica;"
|-
!colspan="4"|連書法
!rowspan="2"|名
!rowspan="2"|轉寫
!rowspan="2"|音值([[IPA]])
|-
!獨
!詞尾
!詞中
!詞首
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ا</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﺎ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﺎ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ا</span>
|ʾalif
|''ʾ'' / ''ā''
|<small>零母</small>,<small>或以示開口長元音</small> {{IPA|/aː/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﺏ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـب</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـبـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">بـ</span>
|bāʾ
|''b''
|{{IPA|/b/}}, <small>或作</small> {{IPA|/p/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﺕ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـت</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـتـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">تـ</span>
|tāʾ
|''t''
|{{IPA|/t/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﺙ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـث</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـثـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ثـ</span>
|ṯāʾ
|''ṯ''
|{{IPA|/θ/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﺝ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـج</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـجـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">جـ</span>
|ǧīm
|''ǧ''(<small>或為</small> ''j'', ''g'')
|{{IPA|[ɡ~dʒ~ʒ]}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﺡ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـح</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـحـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">حـ</span>
|ḥāʾ
|''ḥ''
|{{IPA|/ħ/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﺥ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـخ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـخـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">خـ</span>
|ḫāʾ
|''ḫ''(<small>或為</small> ''kh'', ''x'')
|{{IPA|/x/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﺩ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـد</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـد</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">د</span>
|dāl
|''d''
|{{IPA|/d/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﺫ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـذ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـذ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ذ</span>
|ḏāl
|''ḏ''(<small>或為</small> ''dh'', ''ð'')
|{{IPA|/ð/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﺭ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـر</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـر</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ر</span>
|rāʾ
|''r''
|{{IPA|/r/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﺯ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـز</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـز</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ز</span>
|Zayin|zāy
|''z''
|{{IPA|/z/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﺱ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـس</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـسـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">سـ</span>
|sīn
|''s''
|{{IPA|/s/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﺵ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـش</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـشـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">شـ</span>
|šīn
|''š''(<small>或為</small> ''sh'')
|{{IPA|/ʃ/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﺹ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـص</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـصـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">صـ</span>
|ṣād
|''ṣ''
|{{IPA|/sˁ/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﺽ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـض</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـضـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ضـ</span>
|ḍād
|''ḍ''
|{{IPA|/dˁ/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﻁ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـط</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـطـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">طـ</span>
|ṭāʾ
|''ṭ''
|{{IPA|/tˁ/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﻅ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـظ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـظـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ظـ</span>
|ẓāʾ
|''ẓ''
|{{IPA|[ðˁ~zˁ]}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﻉ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـع</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـعـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">عـ</span>
|ʿayn
|''ʿ''
|{{IPA|/ʕ/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﻍ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـغ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـغـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">غـ</span>
|ġayn
|''ġ''(<small>或為</small> ''gh'')
| {{IPA|/ɣ/}}(<small>或作</small> {{IPA|/ɡ/}})
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ف</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـف</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـفـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">فـ</span>
|fāʾ
|''f''
|{{IPA|/f/}}, <small>或作</small> {{IPA|/v/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﻕ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـق</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـقـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">قـ</span>
|qāf
|''q''
|{{IPA|/q/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﻙ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـك</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـكـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">كـ</span>
|kāf
|''k''
|{{IPA|/k/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﻝ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـل</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـلـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">لـ</span>
|lām
|''l''
|{{IPA|/l/}},(<small>於</small> ''[[安拉|Allah]]'' <small>中[[顎化]]而為</small> {{IPA|[lˁ]}})
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﻡ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـم</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـمـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">مـ</span>
|mīm
|''m''
|{{IPA|/m/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ن</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـن</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـنـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">نـ</span>
|nūn
|''n''
|{{IPA|/n/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﻩ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـه</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـهـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">هـ</span>
|hāʾ
|''h''
|{{IPA|/h/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﻭ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـو</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـو</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">و</span>
|wāw
|''w'' / ''ū''
|{{IPA|/w/}} / {{IPA|/uː/}}, <small>或作</small> {{IPA|/u/}}, {{IPA|/o/}} <small>或作</small> {{IPA|/oː/}}
|-align="center"
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ﻱ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـي</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">ـيـ</span>
|style="padding:10px;"|<span style="font-size:200%">يـ</span>
|yāʾ
|''y'' / ''ī''
|{{IPA|/j/}} / {{IPA|/iː/}}, <small>或作</small> {{IPA|/i/}}, {{IPA|/eː/}} <small>或作</small> {{IPA|/e/}}
|}
 
[[en:Arabic alphebet]]
[[zh:阿拉伯字母]]
 
[[Category:阿拉伯字母]]
二六四